​AWB Trend Data for Job Resources by Australian States ​(2021)

Job resources including workplace authority and co-worker social support, reward and job control received by employees to achieve their work goals are described as “those physical, social, or organisational aspects of the job that may involve any of the following: (a) be functional in achieving work goals; (b) reduce job demands and the associated physiological and psychological costs; (c) stimulate personal growth and development” (Demerouti et al. 2000, p. 501). ​

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Workplace Decision Authority

Work Decision Authority denotes the extent to which an employee is independent to make work-related decisions such as time management, tasks prioritisation and method control in the organisational policies framework.

Skill Discretion

Skill Discretion refers to the range of required skills functioning on a certain position at work. Thus, skill discretion is conceptually different from Decision Authority and corresponds to employees' control over the job.

​The Job Demands and Control (JD-C) theory proposes the active learning hypothesis that advocates that “active jobs” are the ideal jobs. The active learning hypothesis proposes that high job demands and high control will create high job satisfaction, self-motivated learning, and individual development at work via the possibility to develop and utilise new skills. Even though jobs may be highly demanding, workers who have adequate decision authority and discretion to utilise their skills (i.e., to problem solve) will flourish to make the best action out of existing energy (Afsharian et al., 2018). PSC scholars (e.g., Afsharian, Zadow, & Dollard, 2016; Dollard et al., 2014; Zadow & Dollard, 2015) have found PSC as an upstream factor for work environment designs and work-stress theories which substantially indicate a positive relationship between PSC and job resources (i.e., decision authority, skill discretion, and organizational support).

Supervisors and Co-workers Social Support

Social Support (Supervisors and Co-workers) refers to the extent to which workers believe their colleagues value their involvements and behave in a friendly, supportive, and respectful way.

Organisational Rewards

In Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) theory (Siegrist, 1996), organisational rewards refer to salary, esteem, and job opportunities including job promotion, consistency and security for external job demands and obligations.

PSC and Job Resources
PSC predicts work-related resources such as skill discretion (Dollard & Bakker, 2010), work rewards (Law et al., 2011; Owen, et al., 2016), job control and supervisor support (Dollard et al., 2012). In this way, PSC through strong connections with job resources, which are negatively related to health outcomes and positively related to productivity outcomes, acts as a central upstream point to prevent psychosocial risks and hazards at work (Afsharian, et al., 2018).